Wednesday, December 20, 2017

Team-Teaching in English: Working for the Students by Anette Lee



by Annette Lee


Bio: Annette Lee is a veteran ALT who currently works in the Osaka area. She earned a BA in Sociology and Linguistics in 2002 at the University of Washington in Seattle before coming to Japan for the first time after graduating to work as an intern for Sohatsu Systems, an IT company in Kobe. She later applied to the JET Programme and was placed in in a rural town in Hyogo.


After spending a year in the JET Programme, Annette continued to work hard to improve her skills and knowledge. She worked for the dispatch company Interac before returning to the US. She also spent some time as a Sales Assistant for a Seattle based IT company that serves businesses in the US and Japan. Later she returned to Japan to continue her career as an ALT for Interac in Hyogo.


In 2010, Annette launched the beta version of her website, Eigo Ganbare. Drawing on her previous challenges and experience, she made a website for both ALTs and JTEs to get and share resources for teaching English. She researched various team-teaching arrangements in different countries and found that ALTs in Japan lacked the same kind of resources ALTs get in other countries. Annette continues to strive to support ALTs and encourage JTEs in Japan so they can enjoy their work by positively contributing to English education in Japan while gaining a deeper understanding of diversity and what it means to be a global citizen.

As for the future of Eigo Ganbare, Annette is currently working on a classroom portal for teachers and students that uses a combination of traditional and digital material like interactive quizzes. The goal of this portal is to reinforce the information students have learned and allow for further self-study outside of school.

Team-Teaching in English


Native English-speaking Teachers (NETs) in Japanese public schools can be seen as an educational investment, enriching Japanese students to the world outside of Japan and broadening their understanding of mixed ethnic cultures in English-speaking countries. But, how is that possible in a homogeneous country like Japan? Because  challenges exist which disrupt the potential of fully implementing an effective team-teaching program in  the Japanese English education system. We can, however, set our minds with a positive attitude, take innovative steps with a forward-thinking purpose, and believe that we can achieve success. It begins in incorporating a well-efficient plan with everyone’s cooperation, trust, and belief in one another. With these in place, the flow will proceed smoothly and a vision of a successful team-teaching program can be established in the schools and the communities.  

In the mid-1990’s, before I became a NET in Japan years later, I had this rare opportunity to be taught by two high school Japanese language teachers working together in the classroom. One was the lead teacher and the other was the assistant teacher from Japan. I always saw them five days a week and the target language of Japanese was almost always used in every class lesson. I could also learn about Japanese culture/customs. There were opportunities to enter the annual Japanese speech and skit contests because those were class assignments. My school also had a Japanese club with Japan-related outings. Then, in my last year, I met a class of Japanese students from Japan when they visited my school. For that one day, we did group presentations to introduce our country and shared valuable cultural memories with each other. All of these experiences happened in a public school! As for my assistant teachers, I never saw them replaced by another assistant teacher in the middle of the school year and they could stay in the same school for more than a year. Moreover, they were able to have opportunities to make a contribution at my high school, build good relationship with my lead teacher, and become a member of an Association of Teachers of Japanese.


In Japan, the English education curriculum is quite complex and different from the U.S. in how it tailors team-teaching in their schools. Japanese Teachers of English (JTEs) can be assigned as the homeroom class teacher and share their work responsibilities with other subject teachers. These include taking care of the school’s academic scheduling, reports, events, meetings, clubs, and so on. Then, when it comes to their classroom teaching and other English-related responsibilities, their official English textbook curriculum becomes the biggest priority and it carries that influence on to students to mainly focus on passing the entrance examinations. Therefore, the students’ opportunities to benefit from “regular” team-teaching learning with their JTE and NET varies greatly. So, what can be done to properly increase the number of team-teaching lessons in an English class?


First, integrating the NETs into the JTEs’ regular scheduled lesson curriculum would be a good start rather than it being a supplement to team-teaching in English class. Because it helps keep JTEs accountable to fully utilize their NETs, incorporate cultural lesson activities in class, and make the progress of the program grow within the school. If possible, try implementing it on a daily basis, or as close to it, and only schedule NETs with their JTE to multiple schools for “educational outreach” purposes. Find a way to make it work! JTEs and the NET also have to discuss lesson plans, so it’s essential for them to be seated with or within close proximity to each other in the teachers’ room. These NETs aren’t just enthusiastic short-term assistant teachers, but include long-term experienced NETs. There are genuine NETs as well with unique, individualistic, and diverse teaching skills willing to contribute to their school(s) and have hopes to build a trustworthy relationship with school teachers. They  give their best effort to work with JTEs, support English-related after school programs, and much more. It is also a good opportunity for all school teachers to learn more about their NETs and acknowledge what they can do in the school to be a productive member. For example, NETs in junior high schools can take part in what other teachers do at work. They can be assigned as the cleaning lead/sub teacher for a group of students to clean the classrooms, be assigned to a color team with work responsibilities on Sports Day, and so on.       


In regards to resources, purchasing a district school license for domestic and international teaching materials for the English department in each Japanese school and providing a work laptop for every NET is an investment in providing quality education. The budget for it does exist and it’s possible! For example, funding for Japanese public schools that are given the opportunity with a special subsidized budget to be a “model” school, equipped with hi-tech resources in classrooms and an ICT specialist to train school teachers for a period of time, has already been set aside as a trial. Moreover, those who are in such schools, should take advantage and utilize it efficiently. It’s up to teachers and educators to make wise choices, think of the students’ future, and expand the model program to other schools. Let’s also do this with the English team-teaching program! To do so effectively and efficiently, please see “Goal and Outcome” at http://www.laurasian.org/jleap/index.html and “Benefits” at http://www.laurasian.org/jleap/benefits.html to visualize what a successful team-teaching program is like in the U.S. Then, try to use it as a catalyst to prioritize the quality necessities in the Japanese English education, as well as a way for more Japanese public schools to establish a mutual international connection with public schools abroad.


Over the years, I’ve also been developing teaching resources and putting them on my website, Eigo Ganbare.  Many JTEs can only have access to limited, shared teaching resources, and must follow a rigid public school English curriculum. But, if they were provided a balanced workload, teaching flexibility, and a smooth access to resources such as Eigo Ganbare and other educational sites developed by NET/JTE volunteers or licensed English teachers/educators, then they  could more confidently enjoy teaching with a purpose and encourage their school to request additional resources to motivate their students. Even NETs who use pre-made lesson plans and activities from external sites can be inspired to create better lessons of their own or with their JTEs.


What is Eigo Ganbare? It originally started out as a message to students that I put on their worksheets because I wanted them to have hope. It means,  “ Do your best and stay motivated!” Because no matter how difficult English is, you can do it! Now, it can be a similar message for JTEs to have the spirit of determination to enjoy what they teach, embrace co-teaching with a NET, provide effective JTE/NET team-teaching training to elementary school teachers as English becomes a compulsory course, build confidence to engage new challenges, and respectively support their superiors in making good decisions. 全員参加で楽しくガンバロウ!!



What’s your idea that you “CAN” add in class?




To learn about another team-teaching philosophy through the eyes of your fellow Japanese, teaching as an ALT in the U.S., please read their essay report at https://www.jflalc.org/jle-j-leap.
-          A note from ALT training online’s David Hayter

If you have something 'ALT' to write about that hasn't been covered in these blogs, email David Hayter at: alttoblog@gmail.com  so we can work together and spread your story. Don't have any ideas? ALT training online we have a list of topics to write about that need a writer. Email in your interest to write and we can set you up. 

For upcoming blogs see the blogs tab here:  http://www.alttrainingonline.com/blog.html

英語のTeam-Teaching

日本の公立学校で英語を母国語とする教師(NETs; Native English-speaking Teachers)は、日本の生徒に海外へ目を向けさせ、英語を話す国々の多様な民族、文化を理解させるという教育目的のもとで、各校に配属されています。しかし、日本のような均一な国家ではそのような目的を達成すること可能でしょうか?なぜなら、効果的なTeam-teachingプログラムを日本の英語教育に持ち込むことは、混乱を招く可能性があるチャレンジングなことだからです。しかしながら、私たちは積極的な態度に気持ちを切り替え、目的のために革新的なステップを踏みながら、成功を達成できると信じています。まずは、お互いに協力し、信頼・信用することから始まります。協力や信頼・信用があれば、スムーズに事が運び、効果的なTeam-teachingプログラムのビジョンが学校やコミュニティの中で確立しやすいでしょう

後に私がNETになる何年も前の1990年代半ばに、私は高校生で、二人の日本語教師に教わるという貴重な機会を持ちました。いずれも日本からきた教師で、一人は指導教員、もう一人は補助教員でした。毎回、教室では、私は週に5回彼らに会い、ほぼ日本語を使用して彼らから日本語を学びました。また、私は日本の文化や習慣についても学びました。また、クラスの課題として、年に一度開催される日本語スピーチあるいは日本語の寸劇のコンテストに参加する機会もありました。私の学校には、日本に関連した課外活動を行う日本クラブもありました。さらに、最終学年の時には、日本から私の学校にやって来た日本人生徒と会う機会もありました。その際には、お互いに自分たちの文化をグループで発表しあい、互い貴重な文化に触れる経験をしました。これらの経験の全部が、公立高校でできたのです!その日本語教育の補助教員は、別の教員と交代させられることは1年の半ばでなく、彼らは少なくとも1年以上は年間をとおして同じ学校に配属されていました。さらに、彼らは、私が通う高校の教育に貢献し、指導教員と良好な関係を築きつつ、日本語の教師の団体のメンバーにもなっていました。

日本における英語教育カリキュラムでは、学校でTeam-teachingをどう組み込むかについて、アメリカと違って非常に複雑です。日本人の英語教師(JTEs; Japanese teachers of English) は、クラス担任として、各科の教師同じように多くの責任を負わなければなりません。それらは、学期やレポート、行事、会議、部活動などにも参加し携わらなければなりません。さらに各クラスでの指導や英語関連の責任を考えた場合、公式の英語教科書が最重要となり、多くの生徒が実際に入試に合格することに主眼を置いていることに影響されてきます。そこで、いかにJTEsとNETsが協力してTeam-teachingを行うかによって、生徒が得る機会は大きく左右されることになります。どうしたら、英語のクラスで、Team-teachingの機会を増やすことができるでしょう?

まず、NETsによる授業を追加のTeam-teachingクラスとするのではなく、JETsが行う通常どおりの英語授業に統合して組み込んでしまうのが良いスタートでしょう。なぜなら、JTEsにとって、文化的な授業を組み込んでより良い授業に発展させるために、NETsを十分に活用できるからです。もし可能ならば、日常からそれを試すかそれに近い形を試してみて、NETsが受け持つ複数の学校のJTEと一緒に行う授業を教育のアウトリーチと位置づけてスケジュールを組んでみましょう。何とか機能するように方法を見つけましょう!JTEsとNETは職員室で近くに座っているのですから、互いにレッスンのプランを話し合わなければならないことは必須です。これらのNETsは、単なる熱心な短期の補助教員ではなく、長期の経験豊富なNETsも含まれます。学校教育に貢献することを真に願い、日本人の教師たちと信頼関係を築きたいと願うユニークで独立して多様な教育スキルを持った本物のNETsはいるのです。彼らは、JTEsとの仕事にベストを尽くし、英語関連の放課後のプログラムも大いにサポートしています。それは、他のすべての教師たちにとって、彼らのNETsを知ってもらい、彼らが学校の有効な教育メンバーの一員と認める良い機会にもなります。例えば、中学校のNETsは他の教師が行う仕事に参加することができます。彼らは、教室の掃除をする生徒のグループの指導教師にもなれますし、運動会の色分けされたチーム責任をもつ担当教師などにもなれるでしょう。

資料については、それぞれの日本の学校の英語科の中で国内や国際的な教育資料を学校の権利で購入し、全てのNETに仕事用のラップトップを提供することは、質の高い教育を提供するために必要な投資でしょう。そのための財源は存在し可能なはずです!例えば、日本の公立学校は、モデル校としてハイテク機材を教室に導入し、ICTのスペシャリストを学校教師の訓練のために一時的に依頼したりするという試みは、特別なモデル校を助成する財源を利用して行われています。さらに、そのようなモデル校は、効果的にその財源や資源を利用する権利があります。教師や教育者の賢い選択により、生徒の未来が変わり、モデルプログラムは他の学校にも広めることができます。これをTeam-teachingプログラムと一緒に進めましょう!効果的かつ効率的に進め、アメリカ合衆国におけるTeam-teachingプログラムの成功例に見られるような、“Goral and Outcome” http://www.laurasian.org/jleap/indes.htmlと “Benefits http://www.larasian.org/jleap/benefits.htmlを目指してください。さらに、それらを日本の公立学校が海外の公立学校との相互の国際交流を確立する助けとなるように用いるだけでなく、日本での英語教育の質を高めるために利用されたらと願います。

何年もかけて、私は教材用の資料を開発して私のウェブサイト Eigo Ganbare. に載せてきました。多くのJTEsにとって、彼らは限られた共用の教材にしかアクセスできず、厳格な公立学校の英語カリキュラムに沿わなければなりません。しかし、もし彼らがもう少しバランスのとれた仕事量と教え方の柔軟性を与えられ、Eigo Ganbareやその他のNET/JTEあるいは資格のある英語教師や教育者が開発した教材をスムーズに取り入れることができたら、彼らはもっと自信を持って目的のある教育を楽しめるでしょうし、生徒のモチベーションを高めるために追加の教材を取り入れるように学校にはたらきかけるようにもなるでしょう。そして、外部サイトから作業やあらかじめ作られたレッスンをそのまま引用して使用していたようなNETsでさえ、彼ら自身であるいはJTEsと一緒に、より良いレッスンを創り出さなければならないと刺激を受けるかもしれません。

Eigo Ganbare は何でしょう? 最初は私が生徒のワークシートに生徒へのメッセージとして彼らに希望を持ってもらいたいと願って書いていたものが始まりです。最善を尽くして、熱意を持って、という意味で。なぜならどんなに英語が難しくても、成し遂げられるからです!今では、JTEsには教えることを楽しむ精神を持ち、NETと互いに教え合うことに取り組み、効果的なJTEとNETによるTeam-teachingプログラムをやがて英語が必修となる小学校の教師に提供し、新しいチャレンジへの自信を築くこと、それぞれの上司が良い決断をするためのサポートにつながるように、同様のメッセージ Eigo Ganbare が多くの人に届くように願っています。全員参加で楽しくガンバロウ!!

このEigo Ganbare のウェブサイトの中には、どんなお宝が隠されているでしょう?






-          A note from ALT training online’s David Hayter

If you have something 'ALT' to write about that hasn't been covered in these blogs, email David Hayter at: alttoblog@gmail.com  so we can work together and spread your story. Don't have any ideas? ALT training online we have a list of topics to write about that need a writer. Email in your interest to write and we can set you up. 

For upcoming blogs see the blogs tab here:  http://www.alttrainingonline.com/blog.html

Monday, November 20, 2017

Netflix is Your High Interest and Low Cost Authentic Language Learning Resource by Huy Tran



by Huy Tran
Educational Technology Columnist


Bio: Huy Tran is a Global Education Designer who trains ALTs, JTEs, and teaches ESL learners how to harness the powerful tools of the 21st Century. He received his Bachelors of Science in Education from the Rossier School of Education at the University of Southern California. He was a math, science, and English JHS teacher for LAUSD for seven years. He then founded a private tutoring company online during the very early days of e-learning while testing out the potential with VOIP software as a teaching tool. After seven years, he realized he missed the living classroom and desired to see how an education system outside of the United States functions. Initially, a one year break from Los Angeles city life turned into eight years, a wife, a five year old, and his own private English school in the rural town of Yamaga. He has been introducing active learning, group project based learning, computer assisted learning, and other innovations into the Japanese education system of teaching English. First as an Assistant Language Teacher with Interac, then a direct hire by the local Board of Education to train and mentor new ALTs. He now devotes his time as an educational consultant to private schools, BOEs, and teachers on 21st Century, globalized, active learning strategies through workshops and presentations. He is an active member of JALT (the Japanese Association of Language Teachers) and conduct workshops, presentations and demos on the benefits of Skype in the Classroom, computer assisted learning, and autonomous learning. He has presented at conferences in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. As a Microsoft Innovative Educator, he has mentored, trained, collaborated and connected with over 30 teachers in over 14 countries in the past five years. He firmly believes that the next 20 years will see an educational transition in methodologies, and that 20th Century institutional learning will be completely transformed.



The Dream as Reality

              As an English teacher, it would be a dream if you could buy a book or set of flashcards from a publisher, use it for a month with all of your students and then return all of those resources free of charge if all of your students did not like them one bit. That dream exists in today’s 21st Century language learning classroom. Netflix has thousands of high-interest English speaking content that is easily delivered across computers, tablets, and smartphones. Depending on the title, authentic English entertainment can also be viewed with dubbed Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Spanish and French voices, as well as, a selection of foreign language subtitles.

The Content

              There are thousands of titles in all genres to fit the tastes and interests of any language learner. The separate Kid Category even breaks down content from pre-k to pre-teen. Some excellent high interest content at the kid level (or just kid at heart) are Curious George, The Magic School Bus, Camp Lakebottom, the now retro Full House and its descendant, the rebooted Fuller House. All of the aforementioned titles feature Japanese and English audio and some also have subtitles in both languages. Jim Henson’s Word Party takes basic reading and phonetic skills to an interactive level that works well with a touch screen device or high speed computer. The cute animal characters ask questions in a variety of languages and the student(s) must listen carefully to select the correct answer. This Netflix Original show is a particularly useful way to monitor students’ listening comprehension, and pronunciation skills.

The Language Learning Activities

              Once a high interest movie or TV series is chosen, the skill building can begin. Streaming content can be used as a pre-knowledge exercise, and in parallel with key language lessons and skills, or used to model speaking rhythm and natural intonation, and even as a reward for completion of reading, writing, or test taking skills. Here are just a few effective activities:
             
l  Read the classic children’s book, The Polar Express and then view the film.
l  Watch episodes of Full House, first in Japanese audio with Japanese subtitles and then re-watch with English audio and subtitles.   
l  Watch scenes of books adapted to film such as The Hunger Games, The Little Prince, and A Series of Unfortunate Events before reading each chapter.
l  Have students listen carefully to documentaries such as Cosmos, and then have them brainstorm and write questions about each episode, as well as, practice interviewing each other with student generated comprehension questions.
l  Have students take dictation to lines of dialogue and then have them check for accuracy by turning on the subtitles after writing.
l  Have students turn on the English subtitles, copy down their favorites scene and then have them      act out the scene. (read this article about a JTE that does this with success)
l  Have students sing along to the titles to musical films and live concert shows by turning on the English subtitles.

The Cost Breakdown

              A one month free trial and a cancel anytime policy makes Netflix an extremely cost effective way to bring real English language tools for less than the cost of a new instructional DVD, workbook, or evening of kaiten-zushi. All levels of monthly membership include basic services of “Unlimited movies and TV shows, Cancel anytime, and First month free”. The Basic Level of service of 650 yen per month limits your classroom to only one screen for viewing at a time, no access to HD or Ultra HD quality content.

The Caveat, and its Caveat

              The price point is definitely not the make it or break it aspect when it comes to using this almost limitless English learning resource. In fact, too much content may have a paralyzing effect on some teachers since it will be up to the teachers themselves to sift through, check for appropriate age level content and curate what their students will find most interesting after a viewing or two. Lastly, despite having a large amount of Japanese entertainment such as kid friendly shows, dramas, anime, and NHK programming, the majority of which is only available in Japanese and without English audio or subtitles. Just like computer literacy, cinema culture or movie literacy, depends strongly on the personal preferences and activities of each students’ particular family. Yet, if the teacher knows their students’ skills well and their personal interests even better, then it takes just a few simple clicks to find or switch content that the students will happily wish to focus on during every lesson.

Sharing

              Did this blog post inspire you? Or are you still in need of ideas? Perhaps you don’t have a lot of time to prepare: post your comments, questions and lesson plans on this topic on the ALTTO Facebook group.

-          A note from ALT training online’s David Hayter

If you have something 'ALT' to write about that hasn't been covered in these blogs, email David Hayter at: alttoblog@gmail.com  so we can work together and spread your story. Don't have any ideas? ALT training online we have a list of topics to write about that need a writer. Email in your interest to write and we can set you up. 

For upcoming blogs see the blogs tab here:  http://www.alttrainingonline.com/blog.html






Saturday, October 21, 2017

ALT Privacy Perspectives in Japan by Nathaneil Simmons Ph.D.


by Nathaneil Simmons, Ph.D.

BioDr. Nathaniel Simmons taught English in Japan for two and a half years in Japan’s Kansai region in Nara (2007-2009) and Osaka (2013).  Simmons is an American communication professor who studies privacy management within intercultural and health contexts.  His research is published within (USA) national and regional journals, as well as international journals.  Simmons recently authored Gaijin Private Parts: Maintaining Privacy at Work in Japan, which examines how privacy is managed between foreign English teachers and their Japanese co-workers.  Simmons co-authored Celebrity Health Narratives & the Public Health, which investigates how celebrity health disclosures influence public health perceptions, and Bitch Slap APA, which uses satire and humor to teach the American Psychological Association’s writing style.  Please see his website for his CV and further details: http://nathanielsimmonsphd.weebly.com/



Nathaniel Simmons, Ph.D.
simmonsnpp@gmail.com

As an ALT, your life will continue to include many things that you may or may not perceive as private information.  As a former ALT turned communication professor, I am interested in privacy and how we maintain it by what we say or don’t say.  This interest led me to interview nearly 80 participants about how they maintain privacy at work.  Half of my participants were ALTs and half were Japanese co-workers [JCWs], such as fellow teachers or supervisors.  I share their perspectives and a summation of this research below: 

ALT Perspectives

“There were no barriers. Every person in the village, every school, you know everyone in the Board of Education, the whole school knew that I broke my leg and what days I was going to the hospital, and medication I’ve been given. There’s no quiet, patient confidentiality.” -- Jamie

ALTs, like Jamie, felt that their privacy expectations about their (a) space and place, (b) bodies, (c) sexuality, and (d) romantic relationships were not upheld by their co-workers.  An ALTs’ space or place refers to areas where privacy is expected or an entitled right.  For example, Ren said, “I feel like a lot of my sense of privacy is violated when I come in [to work] and stuff is on my desk.”  ALTs also commented that their home wasn’t treated as privately as they wished.  Some ALTs were asked for their keys by their employers for repairs or inspections to be made.  Stephanie said for her “One of the more surprising things was when I would call in sick to work and somebody would stop by my apartment.”  Such “surprise” visits would limit one’s chances of taking a mental health day.  Information about an ALTs’ bodies was also perceived to be private information by ALTs.  This included health information.  Aarti explained after a medical visit, “…it was public knowledge to everyone about what I had gone in for, and if I was sick, like, if I was taking meds and, that, and I was like, this is really weird.”  Regardless of the ALTs’ sexuality, ALTs felt that their sexuality or sexual acts should be private and not discussed with co-workers. Tim, a heterosexual man, felt his privacy was invaded when a coworker asked him about his sexual life.  He said, “[my coworker] asked me once how many times I have sex with my wife. I just look at him and go, ‘Oh boy!  [That’s] Way off base!!’” Related one’s dating life was also perceived as private and ALTs felt invaded when JCWs questioned them about other foreigners they may have seen them with in town or, if they were dating someone. LGBTQ ALTs were put in a more precarious space when asked about their dating relationships due to an unawareness and concern for how JCWs would respond to them if they were to come out at LGBTQ. Gideon, a gay man, explained, “I didn’t really want to come out at work, so I told them [co-workers] the type of guy I liked but in female version. I change pronouns.” When ALTs were questioned about these areas, they felt invaded. 

How did ALTs manage their privacy?

To manage privacy, ALTs used: (a) withdrawal, (b) cognitive restructuring, (c) independent control, (d) lying, (e) omission, (f) avoidance, and (g) gaijin smashing to manage their privacy at work.

Withdrawal refers to retreating from relationships or conversations. In other words, ALTs would make conscious efforts to not get too close to co-workers. Cognitive restructuring refers to instances where ALTs changed their perspective, thoughts, or beliefs. ALTs changed their perspective by making conscious efforts to alter the way they perceived privacy violations.  Independent control refers to taking action into one’s own power rather than rely on someone else.  For example, if an ALT needed to go to the doctor, they would study up on their medical Japanese and brave the medical encounter by themselves. Lying refers to instances where one purposefully did not tell the truth. If an ALT was asked what they were doing for the weekend, but didn’t want to disclose, they responded by saying, “Just staying at home.” Omission refers to instances where information was left out of conversations or statements. Related to lying, ALTs would leave out details of their daily activities to obtain a sense of privacy. Avoidance refers to instances where ALTs stayed away from situations, conversations, or people that might have otherwise resulted in situations where one’s privacy was not easily maintained. Similar to withdrawal where ALTs would limit how personally close they became with someone to avoid questioning, they also would avoid people or situations entirely so as not to be asked questions that might be perceived as private. Gaijin smashing refers to instances where ALTs used their foreign identity as a way to play ignorant of Japanese cultural norms, thus putting them into a place to knowingly violate them to obtain their desired goal. Richard defined gaijin smashing as, “it’s where you use the fact that you are not Japanese to get out of social interactions of people that are Japanese, are usually beholding to.” Hypothetically Speaking, Richard described how he responded to moments where he felt his privacy was violated.  He said, “If someone asks me a question, the answer is on them, you know, like you asked for it - and deal with it, is a lot of my mentality.  I don’t mean it quite so aggressively, but that’s how I think about it. I don’t want to volunteer information, but if they asked me, I will answer it and they will answer in turn. And it’s a little - I don’t want to say manipulative, but it creates a situation where I have the upper hand.”

JCW Perspectives

“I just think the concept of privacy is kind of different from Japanese people and English people.  Not English people, foreign people.”  -- Sasaki

Like Sasaki, Japanese co-workers (JCWs) believed privacy was different for Japanese and foreigners. JCWs mentioned the following topics were considered private information: romantic, platonic, and family relationships; health (including age and weight); hobbies; and personal data such as finances/income, phone numbers, email addresses, as well as where one lives. JCWs also commented that privacy is different for foreigners in that it is perceived to encompass a larger scope of items that are considered private than Japanese. At the same time JCWs, mentioned that it is sometimes important to share ALTs’ private information with others because it helps them help ALTs. For example, if an ALT is sick and works at multiple schools, they need to let other schools know so that way they might prepare for a possible absence. Ono said, “In Japan, it’s normal, I guess, maybe if someone gets sick, you know, we [co-workers] talk about that, right?  But for foreigners maybe it’s strange, I guess.” Such actions weren’t made out of spite, but rather to help the ALTs and other schools. Taniguchi explained that it was her responsibility to contact other schools the ALT worked at, so that they might be prepared for a potential absence in the future, even if it was a few days off.  She described the situation: “One ALT has to be absent because, maybe he was sick in the morning, but Japanese, we, have to call to the principal [and tell him] that the ALT will be absent because of so and so. And, also, he will visit another school the next day, so maybe we should share those information with [them] because one of the ALTs [is sick]. But, also, because the, maybe the cause is, if an ALT can speak Japanese and contact them directly, but maybe we don’t do. We don’t need to do that, but maybe there’s a miscommunication and the next day the school will wait for him, but [he] does not come.  Before one [day], day-by-day they should know, so as my job I had to inform them, but maybe this is too much for ALTs. (Laughter).” 

How do JCWS manage their privacy?

Japanese co-workers reported using the following two strategies to manage their privacy boundaries: (a) drawing clear boundaries by not talking or changing contexts, and (b) being proactive by demarcating privacy boundaries early on within a relationship. 

JCWs said that they draw clear boundaries between their work and private life. Tosu said, “At work is work, private is private. I draw a line. It’s a different situation.” Matsuo echoed Tosu’s feelings.  She said “I’m very secretive.  So, I wouldn’t talk, especially with my co-workers. Like, my private and my work life is a totally different things. I try to draw line between these two.” So how did they do that? When I asked Kai how she keeps her privacy at work, she said: “I try to not talk too much. Silent is good.” Koga also believed the best management strategy is to not talk.  Koga explained “Basically, if I want to keep something secret, I just talk nothing about it… I don’t want to tell a lie, so I don’t make up stories. But, I just try to be honest or talk nothing about this, you know.” In fact, Japanese co-workers recommended ALTs not share too, if they want their privacy. Sasaki said, “If they don’t want the people to know, they shouldn’t say, they shouldn’t.” 

JCWs also stated that it is important to change physical contexts to maintain privacy. For example, Koga said that when co-workers started to share something private with her she told them “Okay, I want to listen to you. I want to hear you out, but we can’t do that at work.  So let’s change place, I don’t want to discuss my private life at work.” She clarified that, “A little bit may be okay, a starter, so like, for example, I want to talk about my boyfriend, I’m struggling with them. Oh, okay.  I have time tomorrow. Let’s go to grab something and hear you out.”

Overall, Japanese co-workers mentioned the importance of being proactive throughout our discussions.  Being “proactive” referred to taking initiative early on within the ALT-Japanese co-worker relationship to discuss what is considered private in order to avoid potential privacy violations. Maeda explained: “Private is different.  I feel ALT and Japanese teachers thinking about the private. So, if you know he says, ‘I have two children,’ or something like that, you think ‘Oh, you have two children.’ And, I don’t think this is very secret. So, if he or she don’t want anyone to know they have children, I want them to tell me, ‘Please, don’t tell anybody,’ or ‘This is secret.’  That kind of thing. I want them to mention about that. If he doesn’t say that, I don’t know that I have to keep that private.”

What’s the big picture?

ALTs and JCWs both perceive some topics as private. At the same time, JCWs and ALTs perceive each other differently. In my research, ALTs saw themselves as a “free space” where Japanese cultural norms did not apply and that JCWs could ask them anything. However, as an ALT, it is important to understand Japanese cultural perspectives. One’s perceptions of reality are often a bit more complex than we might initially think. JCWs revealed that when they share information about ALTs with others, it is because they care. For example, sharing an ALT’s illness with others allows them an opportunity to find the best resources to make their lives easier. At the same time, there are logistical considerations. If an ALT is sick one day and they work at multiple schools, the workplace that you miss, might call your other workplaces to give them a heads up that you’re ill and may not make it to work. This helps schools plan and have a “worst-case scenario” in mind in the event that an ALT’s class needs to be cancelled or postponed. 

JCWs revealed that it takes time to know someone. The typical ALT contract doesn’t help with this. JCWs need time to build trust and friendships. Once trust and friendships are constructed, only then is it deemed culturally appropriate to share private disclosures for JCWs. At the same time ALTs are often placed into relationships with their Japanese supervisors where they must trust them initially. This is a difficult situation for both ALTs and JCWs, which can lead to frustrations for all parties. However, understanding this cultural difference can be helpful in conceptualizing the intercultural dynamics at play. There are also steps that ALTs can take to protect their privacy. 

What should I do to maintain privacy in Japan?

1.      Be Proactive.

Take the JCWs’ advice that I spoke with and be proactive. If you share something at work that is private or that you want kept between you and whomever you told, tell them that.  Otherwise, they may not know your expectation. Also, don’t be afraid to say, “I’d love to speak with you about this, but can we go somewhere else?”  Choose a place that will be comfortable for you both. 

2.      Use Privacy Management Strategies from this Blog.

Try different strategies and see which work best for you. Communication is both an art and a science. There’s no wrong or right way. If you try one strategy and it goes well, then try it again. If it doesn’t go well, reconsider trying that strategy. The ALTs I spoke with offered some great tactics that did work for them (i.e., withdrawal, cognitive restructuring, independent control, lying, omission, avoidance, and gaijin smashing). As you decide which to use, ask yourself the following two questions: 1.) Will ____ be appropriate for this situation?  2.) Will ____ be effective for this situation?  For example, gaijin smashing, according to the ALTs I spoke with, always works, but is it the most appropriate? What are the consequences of gaijin smashing? What are your own personal ethics towards lying? Sure, lying and gaijin smashing may work, but ask yourself what unintended consequences might arise as a result of such a choice. 

3.      Use your Social Networks.

Ask fellow ALTs, gaijin, and/or Japanese friends questions. If you want to share something with someone else in person, then test the waters and see how a smaller disclosure may land before you share the entire topic for revelation. Don’t be afraid to blog it out (sometimes even anonymously).  Several gaijin I spoke with did this. Just remember to do so anonymously. Use pseudonyms and not actual names. Be descriptive, but not too descriptive as to give away your location. You wouldn’t want your employer to figure out it is you (and yes, some ALT organizations do monitor their employees’ social media). 


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This blog post is based off the book, Gaijin Private Parts: Maintaining Privacy at Work in Japan by Dr. Nathaniel Simmons. Available on Amazon in paperback:


or electronic format:



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